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GLOSSARY - TECHNICAL ENGINEERING

ASD (Allowable Strength Design)

Method of proportioning structural components such that the allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the ASD load combinations.

ASD load combination

Load combination in the applicable building code intended for allowable strength design (allowable stress design).

Allowable strength 

Equals nominal strength divided by the safety factor

Allowable stress

Equals allowable strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross-section area.

Applicable code

Code (enforced by the local building department) according to

 which the structure is designed

Basic capacity

The capacity of a component with specified conditions for use in accordance with CSA A344.2.

Beam Locking Device

A pin, bolt, or other mechanism that resists disengagement of the beam connector from the column.

Beamtrack

Mini roller beds

Braced frame 

An essentially vertical truss system that provides resistance to lateral forces and provides stability for the structural system.

Buckling

Limit state of sudden change in the geometry of a structure or any of its elements under a critical loading condition.

Buckling strength

Nominal strength for buckling or instability limit states.

Cantilever Test

A test designed and conducted to determine the connection moment existing capacity and the rotational rigidity, F, of a beam-to-column connection. The test set-up employs one column segment and one beam segment connected to one another, with a beam-to-column connector and a load applied downwardly in the plane of the frame, at the cantilever end of the beam segment.

Cold-formed steel structural member 

A steel member shaped by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or plates, or by roll forming cold or hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature (e.g. without manifest addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming).

Column

Structural member that has the primary function of resisting axial force. A roll formed post section with punched key holes used to make an upright.

Competent person

A person who (a) is qualified because of knowledge, experience, and familiarity with CSA or RMI to organize or perform the work in question; or (b) in the case of safety inspections, has knowledge of any potential or actual danger to health or safety in the workplace.

Concrete crushing

Limit state of compressive failure in concrete having reached the ultimate strain

Concurrent forces

Two or more forces acting in conjunction with one another at a single location.

Connection

Combination of structural elements and joints used to transmit forces between two or more members.

Cyclic tests

A test designed and conducted to determine the connection moment-resisting capacity and rotational rigidity, along with energy-dissipation properties, of beam-to column connections when those connections are subjected to cyclic loading conditions. The test set-up employs one column segment and two beam segments connected to one another, using two beam-to-column connectors, as a double cantilever. Two parallel loads are applied, in opposing reversing cyclic fashion, in the plane of the frame at the ends of, and normal to, the cantilevered beam elements.

CWB (Canadian Welding Bureau)

A division of the CWB Group, which is responsible for adherence of companies to an appropriate welding certification standard.

Damping-of-the-load

Energy dissipation due to the contents, distinct from that inherent in the rack structure itself.

Design load

Applied load determined in accordance with either LRFD load combinations or ASD load combinations, whichever is applicable.

Design strength

Resistance factor multiplied by the nominal strength, [Φ Rn]

Design stress

 

Design strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross section area

Diagonal bracing

Inclined structural member carrying primarily axial force in a braced frame.

Distortional Buckling

 

A mode of buckling involving change in cross-sectional shape, excluding local buckling.

Effective length

Length of an otherwise identical column with the same strength, analyzed with pinned end conditions. 

Effective length factor

Ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of the member.

Effective section modulus

Section modulus reduced to account for buckling of slender compression elements.

Effective width

Reduced width of a plate or slab with an assumed uniform stress distribution, producing the same effect on the behavior of a structural member as the actual plate or slab width, with its non-uniform stress distribution.

Factored load 

Product of a load factor and the nominal load

Flexural buckling

Buckling mode in which a compression member deflects laterally without twist or change in cross-sectional shape.

Flexural-torsional buckling  

Buckling mode in which a compression member bends and twists simultaneously without change in cross-sectional shape.

Force

Resultant distribution of stress over a prescribed area.

Gravity load

Loads, both dead and live, acting in the downward direction

Horizontal and diagonal braces

Members generally welded between frame columns to resist cross aisle forces imposed on frames and brace the columns.

LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) 

Method of proportioning structural components such that the design strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component, under the action of the LRFD load combinations.

LRFD load combination

Load combination in the applicable building code intended for strength design (load and resistance factor design).

Load Capacity

The maximum total weight that can be handled by material handling equipment, without sacrificing any of the applicable published specifications of the equipment.

Load factor 

 

Factor that accounts for deviations of the nominal load from the actual load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.

Load Height

Maximum overall dimension from the bottom of a pallet or load module to the top.

Load Length

Maximum overall dimension of a pallet or load module, measured in the direction perpendicular to the length of the aisle for conventional fork truck handling. Automated systems may store loads with length in parallel to the aisle length. Load length may exceed the pallet dimension with product overhang.

Load Width

 

Maximum overall dimension of a pallet or load module and load in the direction parallel to an aisle for conventional fork truck handling, or perpendicular to the aisle for automated systems.

Local buckling

Buckling of a compression element within a cross section

MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures)

 

The average time between two failures, otherwise a measure of the trouble free time.

MTTR (Mean Time To Repair)

The average time to complete a repair.

NBCC (National Building Code of Canada)

Provides building standards.

Net area

Gross area reduced to account for removed material.

Nominal strength 

 

Strength of a structure or component (without the resistance factor or safety factor applied) to resist load effects, as determined in accordance with this Specification.

Out-of-plumb ratio 

 

Maximum horizontal distance (in inches) from the centerline of the column at the floor to a plumb line that extends downward from the centerline of the column at the top shelf elevation, divided by the vertical distance (in feet) from the floor to the top shelf elevation.

Overturning moment

 An applied force that causes a structure to turn over.

Owner

 

A person who purchases and/or directs the use of a pallet rack. Note: While the interests may not always be the same, in the context of this Guide the terms “owner”, “user”, “purchaser”, or designates of any of them (such as a consultant) have the same meaning

PSR

Pre-Start Health & Safety Review

Pallet Beam

The front and back shelf members that bear the weight of the load and transfer the load to the upright frames

Pallet load support member

Any load bearing member with the long axis on the horizontal plane, intended to support unit loads in direct contact (i.e. pallet, shelf supports and beams but not bracing).

PDF (Portable Document Format)

Printable forms are author protected and cannot be modified by the recipent. 

Portal test

A test designed and conducted to determine the connection moment-resisting capacity and the rotational rigidity “F” of a beam-to-column connection. The test setup employs two column segments and one beam segment connected to one another, using two beam-to-column connectors forming a portal frame, with the load applied laterally in the plane of, and to the corner of, the portal frame in the direction parallel to the beam segment.

Professional Engineer

A person registered or licensed to practice as a professional engineer within a provincial or territorial jurisdiction of Canada.  Note: Where local laws or regulations applying to pallet racks specifically define the term “professional engineer” that definition prevails.

Safety factor 

Factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength, deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the manner and consequences of failure. The nominal load divided by the safety factor results in the allowable load for an allowable strength design.  An allowance is included in the rated capacity of a pallet rack component, to permit a momentary overload condition (e.g. during the placing of a loaded pallet onto a beam), without causing an immediate failure.

Seismic Response Modification Coefficient

Factor that reduces seismic load effects to strength level.

 

Sideway buckling

Limit state of lateral buckling of the tension flange, opposite the location of a concentrated compression force.

Simple lip

Single plate elements used to stiffen a compression flange.

Site class definition

A classification assigned to a location based on the types of soils present.

Stability

Condition reached in the loading of a structural component, frame or structure in which a slight disturbance in the loads or geometry, does not produce large displacements.

Stiffness

Resistance to deformation of a member or structure, measured by the ratio of the applied force (or moment) to the corresponding displacement (or rotation).

Stored load

A maximum load of pallets and products stored on racks.

Stress

Force per unit area caused by axial force, moment, shear or torsion.

Structural system

An assembly of load-carrying components that are joined together to provide interaction or interdependence.

Stub column test

Concentric compression testing of members, not affected by column buckling, used to determine the column effectiveness.

Torsional buckling

Buckling mode in which a compression member twists about its shear center axis.

Torsional-Flexural Buckling.

Buckling mode in which compression members bend and twist simultaneously without change in cross section shape.

Trussed-Braced Upright Frame

Upright frames having two columns similar to the chords of a truss with diagonal and horizontal bracing attached to and located between the columns. The diagonals and horizontals become the web members of the truss (referred to as a vertical truss).

Unbraced length

Distance between braced points of a member, measured between the centers of gravity of the bracing members.

Vertical impact load

Additional downward force added to the beams produced during loading of the rack.

Yield point 

 

First stress in a material at which an increase in strain occurs, without an increase in stress, as defined by ASTM.

Yield strength

Stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain, as defined by ASTM.