Technical Engineering

Design Stress

Design strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross section area

Diagonal Bracing

Inclined structural member carrying primarily axial force in a braced frame.

Distortional Buckling

A mode of buckling involving change in cross-sectional shape, excluding local buckling.

Effective Length

Length of an otherwise identical column with the same strength, analyzed with pinned end conditions.

Effective Length Factor

Ratio between the effective length and the unbraced length of the member.

Effective Section Modulus

Section modulus reduced to account for buckling of slender compression elements.

Effective Width

Reduced width of a plate or slab with an assumed uniform stress distribution, producing the same effect on the behavior of a structural member as the actual plate or slab width, with its non-uniform stress distribution.

Factored Load 

Product of a load factor and the nominal load

Flexural Buckling

Buckling mode in which a compression member deflects laterally without twist or change in cross-sectional shape.

Flexural-Torsional Buckling  

Buckling mode in which a compression member bends and twists simultaneously without change in cross-sectional shape.


Resultant distribution of stress over a prescribed area.

Gravity Load

Loads, both dead and live, acting in the downward direction