From the JIT movement in manufacturing, containerization refers to using standardized containers for the storage and transport of materials within a manufacturing facility, as well as between vendors and manufacturers. The benefits of containerization include reduced product damage, reduced waste (by using reusable containers), less handling, and greater levels of inventory accuracy by simplifying the counting processes.

Control System

A hardware/software system that has its primary function, the collection and analysis of feedback from a given set of functions for, the purpose of controlling these functions.  Control may be implemented by monitoring and/or systematically modifying parameters or policies used in those functions, or by preparing control reports that initiate useful action with respect to significant deviations and expectations.


An electromechanical device or assembly of devices for starting, accelerating, decelerating or stopping a conveyor drive, or that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the electric power delivered to a drive.

Converging Section

A section of roller or wheel conveyor where two conveyors meet and merge into one conveyor


A horizontal, inclined or vertical device used to move or transport bulk materials, packages or objects in a path predetermined by design of the device and having points of loading and discharge fixed / selective; included are vertical reciprocating and inclined reciprocating conveyors.

Conveyor Belt

A belt used to carry materials and transmit the power required to move the load being conveyed.

Conveyor Chain

A chain used to drive the roller in a roller conveyor

Conveyor Guard

A structure mounted below the conveyor path to protect personnel and equipment below from falling material or packages.

Conveyor Width

In unit handling conveyor, the dimensions inside-to-inside of frame rails.  Crab Movement of an AGV in the lateral (sideways) direction, from 0° -90°.


A machine for moving a load vertically and horizontally, with the housing mechanism as an integral part of the machine.

Cross-Belt Sorter

Conveyor sorting system that uses a series of devices (carriers) mounted on a conveyor to sort materials. Each device has a small belt conveyor mounted on top of it that runs perpendicular to the main conveyor. When it arrives at a sort point, the conveyor on the carrier will spin, moving the materials to the side of the main conveyor (usually onto another conveyor, dropping down a chute or into a container).


Cross-docking is the action of unloading materials from an incoming trailer or rail car and immediately loading these materials into outbound trailers or rail cars, thus eliminating the need for warehousing (storage). In reality, pure cross-docking is rare outside of transportation hubs and hub-and-spoke type distribution networks. Many “cross-docking” operations require large staging areas where inbound materials are sorted, consolidated, and stored until the outbound shipment is complete and ready to ship. This staging may take hours, days, or even weeks in which case the “staging area” is essentially a “warehouse”.

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