Accumulator Conveyor

A conveyor designed to permit accumulation of packages, objects, or carriers. May be roller, live roller, belt, power-and-free, or chain conveyors.

AGVS (Automated Guided Vehicle System)

Systems of vehicles that can be programmed to automatically drive to designated points and perform pre-programmed functions. Guidance system may consist of wire embedded in the floor, optical system or other types of guidance. Used frequently in AS/RS distribution centers.


Actual demand created by sales orders or work orders against a specific item.

Allowable Strength 

Equals nominal strength divided by the safety factor

Allowable Stress

Equals allowable strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross-section area.


A mechanical fastener used to secure a pallet rack structure to a building structure (e.g. the baseplate to the floor slab). Local building codes or seismic design needs will dictate the required bolt sizes.

Applicable Code

Code (enforced by the local building department) according to which the structure is designed

Applicable Code

Code (enforced by the local building department) according to which the structure is designed.

As-Built Drawings (Plan, Elevation, Engineering, Permit)

Drawing views (Plan and Elevation) are modified after installation of a pallet rack system to reflect installation variations from original drawings.

ASD (Allowable Strength Design)

Method of proportioning structural components such that the allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the ASD load combinations.

ASD load combination

Load combination in the applicable building code intended for allowable strength design (allowable stress design).

ASRS (Automated Storage and Retrieval System)

A racking system in which each row has a retrieval unit that picks and puts away items.

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems Rack

A rack structure where loading and unloading is accomplished by a stacker crane or similar vehicle, without the aid of an on-board operator. This equipment is dedicated to a specific pallet capacity and size.  Single and double deep systems are typical for this application; specialty loaders are available up to 8 deep.

Automated Storage/Retrieval System

A combination of equipment and controls, which handles, stores and retrieves materials with precision, accuracy and speed under a defined degree of automation. Systems vary from relatively simple, manually controlled order-picking machines operating in small storage structures, to computer-controlled storage and retrieval systems, totally integrated into the manufacturing and distribution process

Automated/Automatic Guided Vehicle

Vehicles equipped with electromagnetic, optical or other systems for guidance and employ various types of collision avoidance systems. AGVs can have reprogramming capabilities for path selection and positioning.  An AGV is often referred to as a driverless vehicle because human intervention is not required to direct the AGV in automatic mode of operation.

Automatic Identification Systems

The application of various technologies, such as bar coding, image recognition, voice recognition and RF/MW transponders, for the purpose of data entry to a data processing system. AIS applications are characterized by data capture at the site of an event. Automatic identification systems combine machine-readable coding symbols to be read by strategically deployed code readers for purpose of automatic sorting, data handling in receiving and shipping, monitoring work in process, and verifying components.

Automatic Sortation

The electronic recognition of cartons by size or code, enabling them to be sorted in groups.

Automatic Warehouse

A warehouse in which a substantial part of the receipt, storage and dispatch functions are performed without manual handling of the goods involved.


The use of computers and other technologies to control industrial machinery and processes


Adjacent rows of racking are bolted together with rowspacers back-to-back.  The rowspacers allow for greater stability, rigidity and impact resistance. Single deep racking has 2 bays per row and double deep racking has 4 bays per row.  Back-to-back rows should have the same beam sizes, but the beam centres can vary.

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